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Functional Peripheral Field

Description and Rationale

The confrontation testing technique provides a rudimentary estimation of a student's peripheral visual fields. The examiner and student may sit facing one another approximately two feet apart. The examiner wiggles the target (such as a finger or puppet) in each of the four quadrants of the visual field. The examiner should slowly bring the target toward midline or the area of central vision.

Field testing is important to consider for its impact on travel skills, recreation and leisure, social skills, independent living skills and accessing various visual information in the environment.

All Ages and Populations

Confrontation assessed preferred visual quadrants


If areas of concern emerge, the student should be referred to an eye care specialist for further clinical testing.

Confrontation field testing should be completed in various light settings (i.e., daytime, dusk, nighttime, overhead, and natural lighting) as lighting often has significant impact on visual fields.

Students with multiple or severe disabilities may require unique testing techniques. For example, you may need to use objects that are larger and more brightly colored or objects that have a history of high interest for the child. In addition, the child may demonstrate more reliable feedback if response time is extended and the child is kept in his or her familiar classroom environment.

Requesting assistance from the certified orientation and mobility specialist (COMS) can provide valuable information toward this area of assessment.

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